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4.1: Line Integrals - Mathematics


In single-variable calculus you learned how to integrate a real-valued function (f (x)) over an interval ([a,b]) in (mathbb{R}^1). This integral (usually called a Riemann integral) can be thought of as an integral over a path in (mathbb{R}^1), since an interval (or collection of intervals) is really the only kind of “path” in (mathbb{R}^1). You may also recall that if (f (x)) represented the force applied along the (x)-axis to an object at position (x) in ([a,b]), then the work (W) done in moving that object from position (x = a ext{ to }x = b) was defined as the integral:

[W=int_a^b f (x)dx]

In this section, we will see how to define the integral of a function (either real-valued or vector-valued) of two variables over a general path (i.e. a curve) in (mathbb{R}^2). This definition will be motivated by the physical notion of work. We will begin with real-valued functions of two variables.

In physics, the intuitive idea of work is that

[ ext{Work = Force × Distance}]

Suppose that we want to find the total amount (W) of work done in moving an object along a curve (C) in (mathbb{R}^2) with a smooth parametrization (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b), with a force (f (x, y)) which varies with the position ((x, y)) of the object and is applied in the direction of motion along (C) (see Figure (PageIndex{1}) below).

We will assume for now that the function (f (x, y)) is continuous and real-valued, so we only consider the magnitude of the force. Partition the interval ([a,b]) as follows:

[a = t_0 < t_1 < t_2 < ··· < t_{n−1} < t_n = b , ext{ for some integer }n ≥ 2]

As we can see from Figure (PageIndex{1}), over a typical subinterval ([t_i ,t_{i+1}]) the distance (∆s_i) traveled along the curve is approximately (sqrt{∆x_i^2 +∆y_i^2}), by the Pythagorean Theorem. Thus, if the subinterval is small enough then the work done in moving the object along that piece of the curve is approximately

[ ext{Force × Distance} approx f (x_{i∗}, y_{i∗}) sqrt{ ∆x_i^2 +∆y_i^2}label{Eq4.1}]

where ((x_{i∗}, y_{i∗}) = (x(t_{i∗}), y(t_{i∗}))) for some (t_{i∗} ext{ in }[t_i ,t_{i+1}]), and so

[W approx sum_{i=0}^{n-1} f (x_{i∗}, y_{i∗}) sqrt{ ∆x_i^2 +∆y_i^2}label{Eq4.2}]

is approximately the total amount of work done over the entire curve. But since

[sqrt{ ∆x_i^2 +∆y_i^2} = sqrt{left ( dfrac{∆x_i}{∆t_i} ight )^2 +left ( dfrac{∆y_i}{∆t_i} ight )^2}∆t_i]

where (∆t_i = t_{i+1} − t_i), then

[W approx sum_{i=0}^{n-1}f (x_{i∗}, y_{i∗})sqrt{left ( dfrac{∆x_i}{∆t_i} ight )^2 + left ( dfrac{∆y_i}{∆t_i} ight )^2}∆t_i label{Eq4.3}]

Taking the limit of that sum as the length of the largest subinterval goes to 0, the sum over all subintervals becomes the integral from (t = a ext{ to }t = b), (∆x_i ∆t_i ext{ and }∆y_i ∆t_i) become (x ′ (t) ext{ and }y ′ (t)), respectively, and (f (x_{i∗}, y_{i∗})) becomes (f (x(t), y(t))), so that

[W=int_a^b f (x(t), y(t)) sqrt{x ′ (t)^2 + y ′ (t)^2},dt label{Eq4.4}]

The integral on the right side of the above equation gives us our idea of how to define, for any real-valued function (f (x, y)), the integral of (f (x, y)) along the curve (C), called a line integral:

Definition (PageIndex{1}): Line Integral of a scalar Field

For a real-valued function (f (x, y)) and a curve (C) in (mathbb{R}^2), parametrized by (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b), the line integral of (f (x, y)) along (C) with respect to arc length (s) is

[int_C f (x, y),ds = int_a^b f (x(t), y(t))sqrt{x ′ (t)^2 + y ′ (t)^2},dt label{Eq4.5}]

The symbol (ds) is the differential of the arc length function

[s = s(t) = int_a^t sqrt{x ′ (u)^2 + y ′ (u)^2},du label{Eq4.6}]

which you may recognize from Section 1.9 as the length of the curve (C) over the interval ([a,t]), for all (t) in ([a,b]). That is,

[ds = s ′ (t),dt = sqrt{x ′ (t)^2 + y ′ (t)^2},dt, label{Eq4.7}]

by the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

For a general real-valued function (f (x, y)), what does the line integral (int_C f (x, y),ds) represent? The preceding discussion of (ds) gives us a clue. You can think of differentials as infinitesimal lengths. So if you think of (f (x, y)) as the height of a picket fence along (C), then (f (x, y),ds) can be thought of as approximately the area of a section of that fence over some infinitesimally small section of the curve, and thus the line integral (int_C f (x, y),ds) is the total area of that picket fence (see Figure (PageIndex{2})).

Example (PageIndex{1})

Use a line integral to show that the lateral surface area (A) of a right circular cylinder of radius (r) and height (h) is (2pi rh).

Solution

We will use the right circular cylinder with base circle (C) given by (x^2 + y^2 = r^2) and with height (h) in the positive (z) direction (see Figure (PageIndex{3})). Parametrize (C) as follows:

[x = x(t) = r cos t , y = y(t) = r sin t , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π]

[ onumber egin{align} A&=int_C f (x, y),ds = int_a^b f (x(t), y(t))sqrt{x ′ (t)^2 + y ′ (t)^2},dt [4pt] onumber &=int_0^{2pi} h sqrt{(−r sin t)^2 +(r cos t)^2},dt [4pt] onumber &=hint_0^{2pi} r sqrt{sin^2 t+cos^2 t},dt [4pt] onumber &=rhint_0^{2pi} 1,dt = 2pi rh [4pt] end{align}]

Note in Example (PageIndex{1}) that if we had traversed the circle (C) twice, i.e. let t vary from (0 ext{ to }4pi) then we would have gotten an area of (4pi rh), i.e. twice the desired area, even though the curve itself is still the same (namely, a circle of radius (r)). Also, notice that we traversed the circle in the counter-clockwise direction. If we had gone in the clockwise direction, using the parametrization

[x = x(t) = r cos (2π− t) , y = y(t) = r sin (2π− t) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π ,label{Eq4.8}]

then it is easy to verify (Exercise 12) that the value of the line integral is unchanged.

In general, it can be shown (Exercise 15) that reversing the direction in which a curve (C) is traversed leaves (int_C f (x, y),ds) unchanged, for any (f (x, y)). If a curve (C) has a parametrization (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b,) then denote by (−C) the same curve as (C) but traversed in the opposite direction. Then (−C) is parametrized by

[x = x(a+ b − t) , y = y(a+ b − t) , a ≤ t ≤ b ,label{Eq4.9}]

and we have

[int_C f (x, y),ds =int_{-C}f (x, y),ds .label{Eq4.10}]

Notice that our definition of the line integral was with respect to the arc length parameter (s). We can also define

[int_C f (x, y),dx=int_a^b f (x(t), y(t)) x ′ (t),dtlabel{Eq4.11}]

as the line integral of (f (x, y)) along (C) with respect to (x), and

[int_C f (x, y),d y=int_a^b f (x(t), y(t)) y ′ (t),dt label{Eq4.12}]

as the line integral of (f (x, y)) along (C) with respect to (y).

In the derivation of the formula for a line integral, we used the idea of work as force multiplied by distance. However, we know that force is actually a vector. So it would be helpful to develop a vector form for a line integral. For this, suppose that we have a function (f(x, y)) defined on (mathbb{R}^2) by

[ onumber extbf{f}(x, y) = P(x, y) extbf{i} + Q(x, y) extbf{j}]

for some continuous real-valued functions (P(x, y)) and (Q(x, y) ext{ on }mathbb{R}^2). Such a function (f) is called a vector field on (mathbb{R}^2). It is defined at points in (mathbb{R}^2), and its values are vectors in (mathbb{R}^2). For a curve (C) with a smooth parametrization (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b), let

[ onumber extbf{r}(t) = x(t) extbf{i} + y(t) extbf{j}]

be the position vector for a point ((x(t), y(t))) on (C). Then ( extbf{r}'(t) = x'(t) extbf{i} + y'(t) extbf{j}) and so

[ onumber egin{align} int_C P(x, y),dx+ int_C Q(x, y),d y &=int_a^b P(x(t), y(t)) x ′ (t),dt+int_a^b Q(x(t), y(t)) y ′ (t),dt [4pt] onumber &=int_a^b (P(x(t), y(t)) x ′ (t)+Q(x(t), y(t)) y ′ (t)),dt [4pt] onumber &=int_a^b extbf{f}(x(t), y(t))cdot extbf{r} ′ (t)dt [4pt] end{align}]

by definition of (f(x, y)). Notice that the function (f(x(t), y(t))cdot r ′ (t)) is a real-valued function on ([a,b]), so the last integral on the right looks somewhat similar to our earlier definition of a line integral. This leads us to the following definition:

Definition (PageIndex{2}): Line Integral of a vector Field

For a vector field ( extbf{f}(x, y) = P(x, y) extbf{i} +Q(x, y) extbf{j}) and a curve (C) with a smooth parametrization (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b), the line integral of f along (C) is

[egin{align} int_C extbf{f}cdot d extbf{r} &= int_C P(x, y),dx+int_C Q(x, y),d y label{Eq4.13} [4pt] &=int_a^b extbf{f}(x(t), y(t))cdot extbf{r} ′ (t),dt label{Eq4.14} [4pt] end{align}]

where ( extbf{r}(t) = x(t) extbf{i}+ y(t) extbf{j}) is the position vector for points on (C).

We use the notation (d extbf{r} = extbf{r} ′ (t),dt = dx extbf{i}+ d y extbf{j}) to denote the differential of the vector-valued function r. The line integral in Definition (PageIndex{2}) is often called a line integral of a vector field to distinguish it from the line integral in Definition (PageIndex{1}) which is called a line integral of a scalar field. For convenience we will often write

[ onumber int_C P(x, y),dx +int_C Q(x, y),d y =int_C P(x, y),dx+Q(x, y),d y ,]

where it is understood that the line integral along (C) is being applied to both (P ext{ and }Q). The quantity (P(x, y),dx +Q(x, y),d y) is known as a differential form. For a real-valued function (F(x, y)), the differential of (F) is

[dF = dfrac{∂F}{∂x},dx+ dfrac{∂F}{∂y}, d y.]

A differential form (P(x, y),dx+Q(x, y),d y) is called exact if it equals (dF) for some function (F(x, y)).

Recall that if the points on a curve (C) have position vector ( extbf{r}(t) = x(t) extbf{i}+ y(t) extbf{j}), then ( extbf{r} ′ (t)) is a tangent vector to (C) at the point ((x(t), y(t))) in the direction of increasing (t) (which we call the direction of (C)). Since (C) is a smooth curve, then ( extbf{r} ′ (t) eq extbf{0} ext{ on }[a,b]) and hence

[ onumber extbf{T}(t) = dfrac{ extbf{r}'(t)}{left lVert extbf{r}'(t) ight Vert} ]

is the unit tangent vector to (C) at ((x(t), y(t))). Putting Definitions (PageIndex{1}) and (PageIndex{2}) together we get the following theorem:

Theorem (PageIndex{1})

For a vector field ( extbf{f}(x, y) = P(x, y) extbf{i} + Q(x, y) extbf{j}) and a curve (C) with a smooth parametrization (x = x(t), y = y(t), a ≤ t ≤ b) and position vector ( extbf{r}(t) = x(t) extbf{i}+ y(t) extbf{j}),

[int_C extbf{f}cdot d extbf{r} = int_C extbf{f}cdot extbf{T},ds,label{Eq4.15}]

where ( extbf{T}(t) = dfrac{ extbf{r} ′ (t)}{ left lVert extbf{r} ′ (t) ight Vert }) is the unit tangent vector to (C) at ((x(t), y(t))).

If the vector field ( extbf{f}(x, y)) represents the force moving an object along a curve (C), then the work (W) done by this force is

[W = int_C extbf{f}cdot extbf{T} , ds = int_C extbf{f}cdot d extbf{r} label{Eq4.16}]


SAT Math : How to find the endpoints of a line segment

The midpoint of line segment AB is (2, -5). If the coordinates of point A are (4, 4), what are the coordinates of B?

The fastest way to find the missing endpoint is to determine the distance from the known endpoint to the midpoint and then performing the same transformation on the midpoint. In this case, the x-coordinate moves from 4 to 2, or down by 2, so the new x-coordinate must be 2-2 = 0. The y-coordinate moves from 4 to -5, or down by 9, so the new y-coordinate must be -5-9 = -14.

An alternate solution would be to substitute (4,4) for (x1,y1) and (2,-5) for (x,y) into the midpoint formula:

Solving each equation for (x2,y2) yields the solution (0,-14).

Example Question #1 : How To Find The Endpoints Of A Line Segment

Point A is (5, 7). Point B is (x, y). The midpoint of AB is (17, –4). What is the value of B?

None of the other answers

Point A is (5, 7). Point B is (x, y). The midpoint of AB is (17, –4). What is the value of B?

We need to use our generalized midpoint formula:

(5 + x)/2 = 17 → 5 + x = 34 → x = 29

Example Question #3 : Midpoint Formula

Line segment AB has an endpoint, A, located at , and a midpoint at . What are the coordinates for point B of segment AB?

The second endpoint cannot exist

With an endpoint A located at (10,-1), and a midpoint at (10,0), we want to add the length from A to the midpoint onto the other side of the segment to find point B. The total length of the segment must be twice the distance from A to the midpoint.

A is located exactly one unit below the midpoint along the y-axis, for a total displacement of (0,1). To find point B, we add (10+0, 0+1), and get the coordinates for B: (10,1).

Example Question #4 : Midpoint Formula

Solve each problem and decide which is the best of the choices given.

What is the distance between the points and on a standard coordinate plane?

Make a triangle. The points are 8 units apart on the -axis, and units apart on the -axis. Then use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance of the hypotenuse, which ends up being .

Another way to solve this problem is to use the distance formula,

Plugging in the two points we get,

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              4.1: Line Integrals - Mathematics

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              Cherie, Amsale Berhane, Yemane

              Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth . A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth . The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190) and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154). Of these 51.6% (98) had oral sex and 57.1% (87) had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7 95% CI 3.6-11.2) and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5 95%CI 6.4-18.5). Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2 95%CI 3.8-12.4), and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7 95%CI 5.4-17.7). Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices . Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to cover a full range of sexual practices .

              Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth . Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth . The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. Results The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190) and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154). Of these 51.6% (98) had oral sex and 57.1% (87) had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7 95% CI 3.6-11.2) and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5 95%CI 6.4-18.5). Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2 95%CI 3.8-12.4), and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7 95%CI 5.4-17.7). Conclusion Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices . Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to cover a full range of

              Blocklin, Michelle K Crouter, Ann C McHale, Susan M

              Using data from a daily diary study of hourly hotel employees in the U.S. and their children, this study examined links between youth supervision arrangements and maternal worry while at work , examining both differences between individuals and day-to-day variation within individuals. Multilevel model analyses revealed both between- and within-person effects linking youth supervision to maternal worry. Mothers' partner status functioned as moderator, and maternal knowledge also emerged as a protective factor when youth were in self-care, highlighting a potential target for future work -family interventions, particularly those for hourly employees with limited access to family-friendly workplace policies.En utilisant les données d'une étude de journal quotidien des employés horaires de l'hôtel aux États-Unis et leurs enfants, cette étude a examiné les liens entre les modalités de supervision des jeunes et l'inquiétude maternelle pendant le travail, en examinant à la fois les différences inter individus et la variation intra individus au jour le jour. Analyses multi-niveaux ont révélé à la fois des effets inter et intra reliant la supervision des jeunes à l'inquiétude maternelle. Statut de partenaire des mères a fonctionné en tant que modérateur, et la connaissance maternelle est également apparue comme un facteur de protection lorsque les jeunes ont pris soins d'eux-mêmes, soulignant une cible potentielle pour des interventions de conciliation travail-famille, en particulier ceux conçus pour des employés horaires avec un accès limité à des politiques favorables à la famille.

              Hutchinson, Nancy L Versnel, Joan Chin, Peter Munby, Hugh

              Workers with disabilities are entitled to have their individual needs accommodated in a way that allows them to perform the essential duties of their job. However, adults with disabilities are often lacking in career development and are ill-prepared to negotiate workplace accommodations. This has led educators to seek workplaces that can accommodate the needs of adolescents with disabilities, so these adolescents can learn to negotiate accommodations and enhance their career development through work -based education. This paper reports on two case studies in which employers had agreed to accommodate the needs of adolescents with disabilities participating in work -based education. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) framed the analyses of these two cases - a case of a student with physical disabilities and a case of a student with developmental disabilities. SCCT proves valuable in understanding the role of work -based education in the career development of disabled youth .

              Goicolea, Isabel Christianson, Monica Hurtig, Anna-Karin Marchal, Bruno San Sebastian, Miguel Wiklund, Maria

              Swedish youth clinics constitute one of the most comprehensive and consolidated examples of a nationwide network of health care services for young people. However, studies evaluating their ' youth -friendliness' and the combination of factors that makes them more or less ' youth -friendly' have not been conducted. This protocol will scrutinise the current youth -friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden and identify the best combination of conditions needed in order to implement the criteria of youth -friendliness within Swedish youth clinics and elsewhere. In this study, we will use qualitative comparative analysis to analyse the conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to implement Youth Friendly Health Services in 20 selected youth -clinics (cases). In order to conduct Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we will first identify the outcomes and the conditions to be assessed. The overall outcome - youth -friendliness - will be assessed together with specific outcomes for each of the five domains - accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective. This will be done using a questionnaire to be applied to a sample of young people coming to the youth clinics. In terms of conditions, we will first identify what might be the key conditions, to ensure the youth friendliness of health care services, through literature review, interviews with professionals working at youth clinics, and with young people. The combination of conditions and outcomes will form the hypothesis to be further tested later on in the qualitative comparative analysis of the 20 cases. Once information on outcomes and conditions is gathered from each of the 20 clinics, it will be analysed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The added value of this study in relation to the findings is twofold: on the one hand it will allow a thorough assessment of the youth -friendliness of northern Swedish youth clinics. On the other hand, it will extract lessons from one of the most consolidated

              Grise-Owens, Erlene Miller, J. Jay Owens, Larry W.

              In response to increasing global changes, this article proposes that social work education add meta- practice to traditional micro-, mezzo-, and macro- practice curriculum areas. Drawing on pertinent literature, the authors conceptualize meta- practice as a necessary paradigm shift for competent and relevant social work practice . Further, the authors…

              Objective High rates of sexually transmitted infections in the Arctic have been a focus of recent research, and youth are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Little research has focused on understanding youth perspectives on sexual health. The goal of this study was to collect the perspectives of youth in Nunavut on sexual health and relationships with the intent of informing public health practice . Method This qualitative research study was conducted within an Indigenous knowledge framework with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews in three Nunavut communities with 17 youth between the ages of 14 and 19 years. Participants were asked open-ended questions about their experiences talking about sexual health and relationships with their family, peers, teachers or others in the community. Results There are four key findings, which are important for public health: (a) Parents/caregivers are the preferred source of knowledge about sexual health and relationships among youth respondents (b) youth did not report using the Internet for sexual health information (c) youth related sexual decision-making to the broader community context and determinants of health, such as poverty and (d) youth discussed sexual health in terms of desire and love, which is an aspect of sexual health often omitted from the discourse. Implications and contribution The youth in this study articulated perspectives on sexual health, which are largely neglected in current public health practice in the North. The findings from this study underscore the important role of community-led participatory research in contributing to our understanding of the public health challenges in our communities today, and provide direction for future interventions and research. PMID:27938635

              Wong, Connie Odom, Samuel L. Hume, Kara A. Cox, Ann W. Fettig, Angel Kucharczyk, Suzanne Brock, Matthew E. Plavnick, Joshua B. Fleury, Veronica P. Schultz, Tia R.

              The purpose of this study was to identify evidenced-based, focused intervention practices for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. This study was an extension and elaboration of a previous evidence-based practice review reported by Odom et al. ("Prev Sch Fail" 54:275-282, 2010b, doi:10.?1080/?1045988100378550?6). In the…

              Wainer, Allison Drahota, Amy Cohn, Elizabeth Kerns, Connor Lerner, Matthew Marro, Bianca Moskowitz, Lauren Soorya, Latha

              Introduction: There is a significant gap between research and practice for mental health services for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite increased numbers of individuals with ASD treated in community settings, little is known about the array of practices used with this population and the extent to which providers are aware of and…

              Abrahams, Ian Reiss, Michael J. Sharpe, Rachael

              Background:Despite the widespread use of practical work in school it has been recognised that more needs to be done to improve its effectiveness in developing conceptual understanding. The 'Getting Practical ' CPD (Continuing Professional Development) programme was designed to contribute towards an improvement in the effectiveness of practical work through initiating changes in teachers' predominantly 'hands-on' approach to practical work to one which manifests a more equitable balance between 'hands-on' and 'minds-on'. Purpose:To evaluate the impact of the Getting Practical : Improving Practical Work in Science CPD programme on teachers' ideas and practice in science practical work in primary and secondary schools in England. Programme description:The CPD programme was designed to improve the effectiveness of science practical work in developing conceptual understanding in primary and secondary schools in England. Sample:Ten teachers of primary science and 20 secondary science teachers. Design and methods:The study employed a condensed fieldwork strategy with data collected using interviews, observational field notes and pre- and post-CPD training observations in practical lessons within 30 schools. Results:Whilst the CPD programme was effective in getting teachers to reflect on the ideas associated with the Getting Practical programme, it was much less effective in bringing about changes in actual teaching practice . Conclusion:The findings suggest that if change, rather than only an enhanced awareness of the issues, is to be brought about in established teaching practice then there is a need for ongoing support over an extended period of time. Furthermore, the impact of such CPD is more likely to be effective if it is undertaken by a senior member of a department or school with the full support of the SMT.

              As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work . This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

              The states should expand their efforts to provide literacy education to state employees, regardless of the type of job they hold or where their job is located. Every government agency whose employees work with or have contact with persons likely to need literacy education should assume identification and referral responsibilities. Likewise,…

              Ford, Paul R Yates, Ian Williams, A Mark

              We examined the practice activities and instructional behaviours employed by 25 youth soccer coaches during 70 different practice sessions. We evaluated the extent to which these activities and behaviours differ from those shown in contemporary research to best facilitate skill acquisition. Nine coaches worked with the under-9 years age group and eight coaches each with the under-13 and under-16 years age groups nine of those coaches were employed at the elite level, nine at the sub-elite level, and seven at the non-elite level. Coaches had players spend more time in activities that were deemed less relevant to soccer match performance, termed "training form" (e.g. physical training, technique and skills practices ), than activities deemed more relevant, termed "playing form" (e.g. small-sided/conditioned games and phase of play activities). Coaches provided high levels of instruction, feedback, and management, irrespective of the activity in which players engaged. Few differences in practice activities and instructional behaviours were reported across skill and age groups, implying the absence of any notable age- or skill-related progression. Findings are discussed with reference to recent research in the areas of skill acquisition, motor learning, and expert performance.

              The aims of the Youth and Environment Training Project were to: increase youth workers' awareness and understanding of conservation and environmental issues and their relevance to young people create links between environmental education and youth work practice develop strategies for implementing conservation and environmental activities within…

              As part of our inquiry into how youth development and 4-H programming can affect the development of social capital for youth and for the community, we engaged youth in ripple mapping. Based on this information, we provide a typology of participation structures in youth development activities and the expected bridging and bonding social capital…

              Hutson, Elizabeth Kelly, Stephanie Militello, Lisa K

              Cyberbullying is a new risk factor for the well-being of pediatric populations. Consequences of cyberbullying include both physical and mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, and somatic concerns. Adolescents who have been victims of cyberbullying and developed secondary symptoms are often recommended to visit a healthcare provider to obtain effective, evidence-based treatment. To date, no interventions exist in the healthcare setting for adolescents who are victims of cyberbullying. The purpose of this project is to review interventional studies on cyberbullying that have components for adolescents who have been involved with cyberbullying and their parents and to provide recommendations on effective intervention components with the goal of guiding clinical practice . A systematic review was conducted using the Institute of Medicine guidelines. A comprehensive electronic literature search was completed targeting interventions of cyberbullying in any setting. No date limits were used. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Education Information Resource Center (ERIC), and PsycINFO databases. The following search terms were applied "cyberbullying" + "intervention" or "treatment" or "therapy" or "program." Only articles with a pediatric population were selected for review. Seventeen cyberbullying intervention programs in 23 articles were found to meet the search criteria. The most frequently used intervention components included education on cyberbullying for the adolescent, coping skills, empathy training, communication and social skills, and digital citizenship. Parent education on cyberbullying was also found to be important and was included in programs with significant outcomes. As youth present to healthcare providers with symptoms related to cyberbullying, effective interventions are needed to guide evidence-based practice . This review

              Gellar, Lauren A. Schrader, Kelly Nansel, Tonja R.

              Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthy eating by youth with diabetes as well as facilitators of and barriers to healthy eating behavior. Methods One hundred forty youth aged 7 to 16 years with diabetes participated in 18 focus groups. Sample race/ethnicity was 71% white, 18% African American, 6% Hispanic, and 5% other 69% of the participants were female. Results Healthy eating was defined primarily in terms of eating fruits and vegetables, low fat, low sugar, and eating to keep blood sugar in range. However, there were notable differences in perceptions of healthy eating versus perceptions of eating practices good for diabetes management. Specifically, “free” foods (foods high in fat but low in carbohydrate) were commonly reported as being good for diabetes management. Major barriers to healthy eating included widespread availability of unhealthy foods, preparation time, and social situations. Parental behaviors, including monitoring food choices and positive modeling, were the most commonly reported facilitators of healthy eating. Conclusion Findings suggest that youth with diabetes have a general understanding of healthy eating and face similar barriers and facilitators to healthy eating as nondiabetic children do. However, the diabetes regimen may influence their understanding of healthy eating, sometimes negatively. Diabetes nutrition education sessions should emphasize the connection between healthy eating and both short-and long-term diabetes outcomes, and they should highlight strategies to reduce saturated fat consumption while avoiding excessive carbohydrate consumption. The diabetes educator can play an integral role in promoting healthy dietary practices by facilitating parental involvement, designing action plans for managing social situations, and increasing awareness of healthier alternatives to widely available unhealthy foods. PMID:17684168

              Perhaps more extensively and provocatively than any other contemporary theorist, Henry Giroux has theorized the relationship between youth and democratic public life. Beginning arguably with his first book, Ideology, Culture, and the Process of Schooling (Temple University Press, 1981), and continuing across a number of critically acclaimed works…

              Nivalainen, V. Asikainen, M. A. Hirvonen, P. E.

              This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers’ (n=32) views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The objectives most commonly referred to were related to the connections between theory and practice , motivation, understanding phenomena, learning how to observe, and learning how to report. In contrast, some objectives were recognized only rarely, which is an important issue for discussion as a future challenge. Preservice teachers’ positive experiences of practical work resulted from the successful implementation of practical work . According to our findings, practical work can in many cases be regarded as successful, especially when the participants understand the objectives of the teaching. In contrast, negative experiences reflected failures or difficulties in implementation. We conclude by suggesting that preservice teachers should be offered opportunities to reflect on their previous experiences and to see and experience in practice the advantages of practical work .

              Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly Quijano, Louise M. Bubar, Roe

              The study of ways that professional power is perceived in social work practice is limited. This exploratory qualitative study analyzes second-year MSW students' perceptions of professional power in social work practice . This inquiry is guided by social constructivism and symbolic interactionism perspectives. The authors used constant comparison…

              . Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.306 Work practice standards. (a) Work practice plan. On or before. plan for each coke oven battery. The plan shall be designed to achieve compliance with visible emission limitations for coke oven doors, topside port lids, offtake systems, and charging operations under this.

              . for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.306 Work practice standards. (a) Work practice plan. On or before. plan for each coke oven battery. The plan shall be designed to achieve compliance with visible emission limitations for coke oven doors, topside port lids, offtake systems, and charging operations under this.

              . Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.306 Work practice standards. (a) Work practice plan. On or before. plan for each coke oven battery. The plan shall be designed to achieve compliance with visible emission limitations for coke oven doors, topside port lids, offtake systems, and charging operations under this.

              . Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.306 Work practice standards. (a) Work practice plan. On or before. plan for each coke oven battery. The plan shall be designed to achieve compliance with visible emission limitations for coke oven doors, topside port lids, offtake systems, and charging operations under this.

              . 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work practice standards. 60.103a Section 60.103a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS. Work practice standards. (a) Each owner or operator that operates a flare that is subject to this.

              Mattaini, Mark A., Ed. Lowery, Christine T., Ed. Meyer, Carol H., Ed.

              As social work enters its second century, dynamic developments in practice and theory, the richness offered by multiple cultures and groups, and changing political and economic climates are potent forces driving advances in social work knowledge and practice . In the context of this professional evolution, this textbook wrestles with and builds on…

              Workers are faced with wider networks of knowledge generation amplified by the scale, diffusion, and critical mass of digital artefacts and web technologies globally. In this study of mobilities of work -learning practices , I draw on sociomaterial theorizing to explore how the work and everyday learning practices of self-employed workers or…

              Ferreira, Sílvia Morais, Ana M.

              This article addresses the issue of the level of complexity of practical work in science curricula and is focused on the discipline of Biology and Geology at high school. The level of complexity is seen in terms of the emphasis on and types of practical work and, most importantly, in terms of its level of conceptual demand as given by the…

              Drawing from the practice -oriented conception of reflection in social work , its applications in social work education typically focus on students' encounters with the field. Recognizing the value of practice -oriented reflection yet aware of its limitations, complementing it with life story reflection (LSR) is urged. The importance of LSR in social…

              Koehoorn, Mieke Breslin, F Curtis Xu, Fan

              To investigate the longer-term health consequences of work injuries among youth aged 15-24 years using a population-based, longitudinal study (1991-2001) of merged health care and workers' compensation records. A group-based modeling approach was used (1) to identify unique trajectories of health care use defined by general practitioner visits among the study sample stratified by gender, and (2) to determine the injury factors that predict a youth 's membership in a trajectory, adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Four long-term trajectories of health care use were identified among young injured workers, for both males and females. Similar trajectories were observed among a comparison, noninjured sample but the magnitude of health care use was consistently higher among the injured worker cohort, especially for females (attributable to general practitioner [GP] visits for symptoms, signs and ill-defined diagnoses), and a notable "spike" in health care use occurred in the year immediately after a work injury for both males and females that was not observed in the comparison population during the matched year (attributable to GP visits for musculoskeletal and injury diagnoses). For males, the type of work injury mattered with an increased odds of belonging to the higher health care trajectories associated with a musculoskeletal injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI = .76, 3.23 and OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.08, 2.41 for the postinjury trajectories), adjusted for age, occupation, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Persistent use of health care services may represent a cumulative burden of morbidity over the life course as a result of a work -related injury in general among young women and as a result of musculoskeletal injuries in particular among males.

              While the demand in Australia for youth workers is growing, the education of youth workers in universities is being "rationalised" because these institutions have been fiscally squeezed by successive federal governments. What are the consequences for youth workers, young people and society as a whole if the move towards…

              Thiessen, Victor Looker, E. Dianne

              Economic, technological, and social changes occurring around the world have produced incredible challenges for youth , symbolized by persistently high youth unemployment rates despite increasing educational attainments and a shrinking youth population. Chapter 1 of this book provides an overview of the initiatives undertaken by Canada and the…

              Heidi L. Ballard Emily R. Evans

              Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education.

              Martha Monroe Annie Oxarart

              Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education.

              Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education.

              Around the world, youth are recognized as playing an important role in reducing the risk of disasters and promoting community resilience. Youth are participating in disaster education programs and carrying home what they learn their families, in turn, are disseminating knowledge into the community. In addition to making a difference today, youth disaster education.

              Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

              This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work -based career training projects in helping students learn about the operations of a marine hose factory, requisition supplies, rewarp nylon binders, determine the cost of material depreciation, communicate with coworkers, and learn about health and safety procedures. Though specific to…

              This monograph by educator-philosopher Eli Ginzberg, commisioned by the Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, examines the transition from school to work , exploring why the transition is so hard for some groups of young people, relatively easy for others. The point of the book is not to add one more research report to the literature dealing with…

              Fried, Ronna Chan, James Feinberg, Leah Pope, Amanda Woodworth, K Yvonne Faraone, Stephen V Biederman, Joseph

              Fried, Ronna Chan, James Feinberg, Leah Pope, Amanda Woodworth, K. Yvonne Faraone, Stephen V. Biederman, Joseph

              Background: Practical work is widely seen as a necessary part of a good physics education, but convincing evidence that it impacts positively on pupils' learning is scarce. Recent work suggests the use of talk and discussion might hold the key to making practical work more educationally productive. Purpose: The research question that this study…

              Abrahams, Ian Reiss, Michael J. Sharpe, Rachael

              Background: Despite the widespread use of practical work in school it has been recognised that more needs to be done to improve its effectiveness in developing conceptual understanding. The "Getting Practical " CPD (Continuing Professional Development) programme was designed to contribute towards an improvement in the effectiveness of…

              Lamers, Audri Delsing, Marc J M H van Widenfelt, Brigit M Vermeiren, Robert R J M

              The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently available to assess parent-team alliance. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Version (WAV-12), a widely used alliance questionnaire, was adjusted to assess parent-team alliance from both a parent and team perspective within a youth residential setting. Psychometric properties, including factor structure and validity of the subscales, were explored. A sample of youth with mainly complex developmental disorders admitted to 11 inpatient and day patient units of a child and adolescent psychiatric institute participated in this study. The case manager involved with the youth and the primary caregiver of 87 youth completed the revised WAV-12 (WAV-12R). The team version of the WAV-12R showed a good fit to the original conceptualized model, and distinguished Bond, Task and Goal scales. For the parents' version an adjusted model with Insight, Bond and combined Task/Goal scales had the best fit. The reliability and validity of the scales were shown to be good. This paper presents preliminary evidence that the parent and treatment team versions of the WAV-12R are psychometrically sound for assessing parent-team alliance within youth (semi) residential psychiatry in the Netherlands. The team and parents' versions of the WAV-12R are recommended instruments to complement outcome measures in ROM.

              Lunnay, Belinda Ward, Paul Borlagdan, Joseph

              Some years ago Australian anthropologist David Moore criticised the predominant form of understanding youth alcohol consumption for residing with biomedical approaches that individualise and ultimately stigmatise drinking behaviour and 'ignore' the social context of consumption. Of interest here is the ongoing insufficient integration of alternative approaches to understanding young people's drinking. This paper presents theoretically informed qualitative research that investigates why young Australian females (aged 14-17) drink and how social and cultural context form the basis, rather than the periphery, of their drinking experience. We demonstrate the utility of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological framework for delving beyond the dichotomy of young people's drinking decisions as either a determination of their cultural environment or the singular result of a rational individual's independent decision-making. The paper is presented in two parts. First, we provide the interpretation, or 'practise', of Bourdieu's concepts through an outline and application of his complex theoretical constructs. Specifically, the concept of symbolic capital (or social power) is applied. Second, our explication of Bourdieu's ' practice ', or epistemological contributions, offers a methodologically grounded example to other researchers seeking to attain more complete understandings of the social processes underpinning youth alcohol consumption. A sociological approach to exploring the complex relationship between drinking and contextual social factors amongst young Australian females is an unchartered area of enquiry. We contribute new theoretically supported insights to create a more complete picture of young females' drinking behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

              Kang-Yi, Christina D Adams, Danielle R

              This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice . We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

              Courses: Organizational Communication, Advanced Organizational Communication, Organizing Work , Management/Organizational History. Objectives: This activity will help students to understand major shifts in the organization of work and creatively represent changing work structures and practices . An optional follow-up assignment is included. A…

              Paulter, Albert J., Ed. Buffamanti, Deborah M., Ed.

              This book contains 21 chapters describing best practices in both the world of work and in school. The first section of the book, which focuses on the background and philosophy of work -based education, contains five chapters: "Education and Work : The Choices We Face" (Arthur G. Wirth) "Growth Patterns in Workplace Training" (Anthony P. Carnevale,…

              This article draws on the concept of boundaries in understanding the identity practices of a group of Malaysian skilled migrant women working in the Australian education sector. Drawing on in-depth interviews with these women on their migration and work experiences, the author explores the concept of boundary work within an educational framework.…

              Knight, R E Shoveller, J A Carson, A M Contreras-Whitney, J G

              Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth 's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth . Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency-either implicitly (e.g., by describing heteronormative practices ) or explicitly (e.g., by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

              Phillippo, Kate L. Blosser, Allison

              This article analyzes school social work 's history to provide perspective on current dilemmas in social work practice and research. The authors use interstitial emergence theory, which holds that practices from overlapping fields (like social work and K-12 education) can develop into new fields, as an analytic framework. This perspective extends…

              Gwadz, Marya Freeman, Robert M Kutnick, Alexandra H Silverman, Elizabeth Ritchie, Amanda S Cleland, Charles M Leonard, Noelle R Srinagesh, Aradhana Powlovich, Jamie Bolas, James

              Runaway and homeless youth (RHY) comprise a large population of young people who reside outside the control and protection of parents and guardians and who experience numerous traumas and risk factors, but few buffering resources. Specialized settings have developed to serve RHY, but little is known about their effects. The present cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study, grounded in the positive youth development approach and the Youth Program Quality Assessment model, addressed this gap in the literature. From a larger sample of 29 RHY-specific settings across New York State, RHY ages 16-21 from 11 settings were purposively sampled for semi-structured in-depth interviews on their transitions into homelessness, experiences with settings, and unmet needs ( N = 37 RHY). Data were analyzed with a theory-driven and inductive systematic content analysis approach. Half of participants (54%) were female almost half (49%) identified as non-heterosexual and 42% were African American/Black, 31% were Latino/Hispanic, and 28% were White/other. Results indicated that because RHY are a uniquely challenged population, distrustful of service settings and professional adults and skilled at surviving independently, the population-tailored approaches found in RHY-specific settings are vital to settings' abilities to effectively engage and serve RHY. We found the following four major themes regarding the positive effects of settings: (1) engaging with an RHY setting was emotionally challenging and frightening, and thus the experiences of safety and services tailored to RHY needs were critical (2) instrumental support from staff was vital and most effective when received in a context of emotional support (3) RHY were skilled at survival on the streets, but benefited from socialization into more traditional systems to foster future independent living and (4) follow-through and aftercare were needed as RHY transitioned out of services. With respect to gaps in settings

              Vecchio, Jennifer Kearney, Christopher A.

              Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

              Clarke, David J Copeland, Lisa

              Developing nursing practice in any area demands skills, knowledge, support and a long term commitment to the achievement of best practice . It is easy to become overwhelmed by the competing demands for client care and service delivery. It is not always easy to see how good ideas, clinical concerns and professionally led objectives, can be realised in practice . Ongoing professional development activities, including formal educational programmes can contribute to individual staff members' ability to take on practice development projects. Too often however, educational programmes are seen as making little real difference to clinical practice . Work -based learning, a relatively new approach in higher education in the United Kingdom, presents opportunities for Universities and healthcare providers to work in partnership to realise the shared aims of developing nursing practice . Specific examples, drawn from the personal experiences of one of the authors, will examine the contribution of a work -based learning approach to integrating learning and developing practice in the field of cancer care. The work -based learning approach can bring about tangible benefits for patients, practitioners and organisations, but only if the organisational and contextual factors which impact on practice and its development are properly considered and managed through effective partnerships.

              James, C. R. Dunning, G. Connolly, M. Elliott, T.

              Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop the notion of collaborative practice from theoretical and empirical bases. Design/methodology/approach: The research analysed the concepts of collaboration, reflective practice and the primary task. It also examined the ways of working of 18 primary schools in Wales where the level of student…

              Gervin, Derrick W. Davis, Sarita K. Jones, Jenny L. Counts-Spriggs, Margaret S. E. Farris, Kimberly D.

              Background: Social workers entering the profession typically receive little, if any, content or training on evaluation practice . This is, in part, due to limited course offerings outside of the typical courses in most schools of social work . In addition, practicing social workers who often serve in the role as field instructors have not fully…

              This paper examines the place of emotions within social work practice . The perceived tensions between emotions and rational decision making are explored and it is argued that their relationship is compatible and necessary. A model for the co-creation of emotionally intelligent supervision is developed to support this vision of practice . PMID:24764612

              This paper examines the place of emotions within social work practice . The perceived tensions between emotions and rational decision making are explored and it is argued that their relationship is compatible and necessary. A model for the co-creation of emotionally intelligent supervision is developed to support this vision of practice .

              Spera, Vincent Williams, Andra

              The School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 requires that all young people, including young people with disabilities and out-of-school youth , have equal opportunities to participate in the activities funded by it. Local intermediary organizations that provide a critical convening role and offer services to core education and business partners can…

              Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

              This report presents a final assessment of the early implementation of the School-to- Work (STW)/ Youth Apprenticeship Demonstration programs and participants. Chapter I describes the evolution of STW policy. Chapter II discusses marketing methods, the student selection process and selection criteria, reasons for student participation, and number…

              Carter, Erik W. Trainor, Audrey A. Ditchman, Nicole Swedeen, Beth Owens, Laura

              Early work experiences have been advocated as an important avenue for equipping youth with disabilities with the skills, attitudes, opportunities, and aspirations needed to transition successfully to meaningful careers after high school. We examined the efficacy and social validity of a multicomponent intervention package--composed of…

              Hartnagel, Timothy F. Krahn, Harvey

              Four-year panel survey data were used to examine the effects of well-being on school-to- work transition of Canadian youth . Such labor market problems as unemployment and underemployment had small, significant negative effects on self-esteem, depression, and powerlessness for high school graduates but not college graduates. Effects of education…

              Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

              Carter, Erik W. Trainor, Audrey A. Cakiroglu, Orhan Cole, Odessa Swedeen, Beth Ditchman, Nicole Owens, Laura

              Although career development and early work experiences are associated with improved postschool employment outcomes for youth with disabilities, transition personnel report having few natural community partners to support and enhance these experiences. We surveyed 135 chambers of commerce and other employer networks to examine (a) whether and how…

              For youth with disabilities, transitioning from school to work and adult life often means overcoming multiple social, academic, and environmental constraints that may present as roadblocks to meeting society's expectations of 'successful transition' (Lehman, Clark, Bullis, Rinkin, & Castellanos, 2002). According to the United States Department…

              National Committee on Employment of Youth, New York, NY.

              A descriptive review of three job preparation programs for out-of- work youth and guidelines for organizing similar programs in local communities are presented. The programs ranged from a large operation in Detroit to smaller individualized programs initiated by Kalamazoo, Michigan, and North Richmond, California. They were designed primarily to…

              The Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects (YIEPP) demonstration, which was in full operation from 1978 to 1980, was established to test the efficacy of work combined with education as a remedy for high unemployment, low labor force participation, and the excessive school dropout rate of teenagers. YIEPP offered Federal minimum-wage jobs…

              McLoyd, Vonnie C. Kaplan, Rachel Purtell, Kelly M. Huston, Aletha C.

              The impacts of New Hope, a 3-year work -based antipoverty program to increase parent employment and reduce poverty, on youth ages 9-19 (N = 866) were assessed 5 years after parents left the program. New Hope had positive effects on the future orientation and employment experiences of boys, especially African American boys. Compared to boys in…

              The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice . If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice , the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

              Hendry, David T Crocker, Peter R E Hodges, Nicola J

              Based upon predictions derived from the Developmental Model of Sports Participation, we tested whether hours in domain-specific play (self-led activities) and practice (coach-led activities) during childhood (

              5-12 year) in an elite group of youth soccer players from the UK (N = 144) were related to motivation. Independent analysis of three different age groups (Under 13, 15 and 17 year) did not show relations between play and practice activities during childhood and global measures of motivation. However, secondary analysis showed that when controlling for years in soccer, years in the UK Academy system were negatively related to global indices of self-determined motivation (SDI) and positively related to controlled motivation for the oldest players. Despite predictions, there was no evidence that play during childhood was positively related to more SDI. Prospective research is recommended to enable more robust conclusions about the role of early developmental practice activities, especially early specialisation in a high-performance system, on both skill and psychosocial development.

              Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.

              Gwadz, Marya Freeman, Robert M. Kutnick, Alexandra H. Silverman, Elizabeth Ritchie, Amanda S. Cleland, Charles M. Leonard, Noelle R. Srinagesh, Aradhana Powlovich, Jamie Bolas, James

              Runaway and homeless youth (RHY) comprise a large population of young people who reside outside the control and protection of parents and guardians and who experience numerous traumas and risk factors, but few buffering resources. Specialized settings have developed to serve RHY, but little is known about their effects. The present cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study, grounded in the positive youth development approach and the Youth Program Quality Assessment model, addressed this gap in the literature. From a larger sample of 29 RHY-specific settings across New York State, RHY ages 16–21 from 11 settings were purposively sampled for semi-structured in-depth interviews on their transitions into homelessness, experiences with settings, and unmet needs (N = 37 RHY). Data were analyzed with a theory-driven and inductive systematic content analysis approach. Half of participants (54%) were female almost half (49%) identified as non-heterosexual and 42% were African American/Black, 31% were Latino/Hispanic, and 28% were White/other. Results indicated that because RHY are a uniquely challenged population, distrustful of service settings and professional adults and skilled at surviving independently, the population-tailored approaches found in RHY-specific settings are vital to settings’ abilities to effectively engage and serve RHY. We found the following four major themes regarding the positive effects of settings: (1) engaging with an RHY setting was emotionally challenging and frightening, and thus the experiences of safety and services tailored to RHY needs were critical (2) instrumental support from staff was vital and most effective when received in a context of emotional support (3) RHY were skilled at survival on the streets, but benefited from socialization into more traditional systems to foster future independent living and (4) follow-through and aftercare were needed as RHY transitioned out of services. With respect to gaps in settings

              Conlon, Beth A McGinn, Aileen P Lounsbury, David W Diamantis, Pamela M Groisman-Perelstein, Adriana E Wylie-Rosett, Judith Isasi, Carmen R

              The home environment, which includes parenting practices , is an important setting in which children develop their health behaviors. We examined the role of parenting practices in the home environment among underserved youth . We examined baseline data of a family-focused pediatric obesity intervention. Parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, limit setting of soda/snacks [SS] and screen media [SM], pressure to eat, and reinforcement) and availability of fruits/vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), family meals, television (TV) watching during meals, TVs in the home, owning active video games/sports equipment, and household food security were assessed in 301 parent/caregivers of overweight/obese children (ages 7-12 years BMI≥85th percentile). Associations were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Parents/caregivers (ages 22-67 years) were largely Hispanic/Latino (74.1%), female (92.4%), and reported high levels of limit setting SS and low levels of pressure to eat. Parent age, gender, country of birth, and years living in the United States accounted for differences among several parenting practices . Adjusted logistic regression models identified several statistically significant associations, including: Monitoring was positively associated with availability FV (odds ratio [OR]=2.19 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 3.82) limit setting SS was inversely associated with availability of SSBs (OR=0.40 95% CI, 0.21, 0.75) and limit setting SM was inversely associated with TV viewing during family meals (OR=0.51 95% CI, 0.31, 0.85). Nearly 40% of our population was food insecure, and food insecurity was positively associated with pressure to eat (OR=1.77 95% CI, 1.01, 3.15). Parenting practices play an important role in the home environment, and longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in the context of family-focused pediatric obesity

              Stephenson, Kay Chapman, Georgina

              With the two-year pilot of "Getting Practical " drawing to a close, new ways to embed the key messages into existing CPD programmes are being sought. In "Embedding Getting Practical ," the first author describes how she has been able to do this with the courses she is involved with. In "ASE Improving Practical Work in Triple Science LSN Network,"…

              Carlone, Heidi B. Huffling, Lacey D. Tomasek, Terry Hegedus, Tess A. Matthews, Catherine E. Allen, Melony H. Ash, Mary C.

              The historical under-representation of diverse youth in environmental science education is inextricably connected to access and identity-related issues. Many diverse youth with limited previous experience to the outdoors as a source for learning and/or leisure may consider environmental science as "unthinkable." This is an ethnographic…