# 4.6: BM 13901 #23

## Rev. II

11 About a surface, the four widths and the surface I have heaped, (41^{prime} 40^{prime prime}).

12 4, the four widths, you inscribe. igi 4 is (15^{prime}).

13 (15^{prime}) to (41^{prime} 40^{prime prime}) you raise: (10^{prime} 25^{prime prime}) you inscribe.

14 1, the projection, you join: by (1^{circ} 10^{prime} 25^{prime prime}), (1^{circ}5^{prime}) is equal.

15 1, the projection, which you have joined, you tear out: (5^{prime}) to two

16 you repeat: (10^{prime}), (mathrm{NINDAN}), confronts itself.

Whereas the previous problem illustrates the “modern” aspect of Old Babylonian mathematics, the present one seems to illustrate its archaic side—even though they come from the same tablet.

This is no real contradiction. The present problem #23 is intentionally archaic. In other words, it is archaizing and not truly archaic, which explains its appearance together with the “modern” problems of the same collection. The author is not modern and archaic at the same time, he shows his virtuosity by playing with archaisms. In several ways, the formulations that are used here seem to imitate the parlance of Akkadian surveyors. The text speaks of the width of a square, not of a “confrontation”; further, this word appears in syllabic writing, which is quite exceptional (cf. note 4, page 16). The introductory phrase “About a surface”9 seems to be an abbreviated version of the characteristic formula introducing a mathematical riddle: “if somebody asks you thus about a surface …” (cf. pages 34, 110, 111 and 127). The expression “the four widths”10 reflects an interest in what is really there and for what is striking, an interest that characterizes riddles in general but also the mathematical riddles that circulated among the mathematical practitioners of the pre-Modern world (see page 106). Even the method that is used is typical of riddles: the use of an astonishing artifice that does not invite generalization.

The problem can thus be expressed in the following way:

(4 c+square(c)=41^{prime} 40^{prime prime}).

Figure 4.12 makes clear the procedure: 4c is represented by 4 rectangles ((1, c)); the total (41^{prime} 40^{prime prime}) thus corresponds to the cross-shaped configuration where a “projection” protrudes in each of the four principal directions.

Lines 12–13 prescribe to cut out (frac{1}{4}) of the cross (demarcated by a dotted line) and the “joining” of a quadratic complement (square(1)) to the gnomon that results. There is no need to “make hold,” the sides of the complement are already there in the right position. But it is worthwhile to notice that it is the “projection” itself that is “joined”: it is hence no mere number but a quadratic configuration identified by its side.

The completion of the gnomon gives a square with area (1^{circ} 10^{prime} 25^{prime prime}) and thus side (1^{circ}5^{prime}). "Tearing out" the "projection"—now as a one dimensional entity—we find (5^{prime}). Doubling the result, we get the side, which turns out to be (10^{prime}). Here again, the text avoids the usual term and does not speak of a "confrontation" as do the "modern" problems of the collection; instead it says that (10^{prime} mathrm{NINDAN}) "confronts itself."

This method is so different from anything else in the total corpus that Neugebauer believed it to be the outcome of a copyist's mixing up of two problems that happens to make sense mathematically. As we shall see below (page 109), the explanation is quite different.

The archaizing aspect, it should be added, does not dominate completely. Line 12, asking first for the "inscription" of 4 and stating afterwards its igi, seems to describe the operation on a tablet for rough work that were taught in school (see note 5, page 65, and page 120).

## 4.6: BM 13901 #23

4 I therefore, (A) a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to (B) walk in a manner worthy of (C) the calling to which you have been called, 2 with all (D) humility and (E) gentleness, with (F) patience, (G) bearing with one another in love, 3 eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in (H) the bond of peace. 4 There is (I) one body and (J) one Spirit—just as you were called to the one (K) hope that belongs to your call— 5 (L) one Lord, (M) one faith, (N) one baptism, 6 (O) one God and Father of all, (P) who is over all and through all and in all. 7 But (Q) grace was given (R) to each one of us (S) according to the measure of Christ's gift. 8 Therefore it says,

(T) “When he ascended on high (U) he led a host of captives,
and he gave gifts to men.” [a]

9 ( (V) In saying, “He ascended,” what does it mean but that he had also descended into (W) the lower regions, the earth? [b] 10 He who descended is the one who also (X) ascended (Y) far above all the heavens, that he might (Z) fill all things.) 11 And (AA) he gave the (AB) apostles, the prophets, the (AC) evangelists, the (AD) shepherds [c] and teachers, [d] 12 (AE) to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for (AF) building up (AG) the body of Christ, 13 until we all attain to (AH) the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, (AI) to mature manhood, [e] to the measure of the stature of (AJ) the fullness of Christ, 14 so that we may no longer be children, (AK) tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in (AL) deceitful schemes. 15 Rather, (AM) speaking the truth in love, we are to (AN) grow up in every way into him who is (AO) the head, into Christ, 16 (AP) from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, (AQ) when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.

### The New Life

17 Now this I say and (AR) testify in the Lord, (AS) that you must no longer walk as the Gentiles do, (AT) in the futility of their minds. 18 They (AU) are darkened in their understanding, (AV) alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, due to (AW) their hardness of heart. 19 They (AX) have become callous and (AY) have given themselves up to sensuality, greedy to practice every kind of impurity. 20 But that is not the way you (AZ) learned Christ!— 21 assuming that (BA) you have heard about him and (BB) were taught in him, as the truth is in Jesus, 22 to (BC) put off (BD) your old self, [f] which belongs to your former manner of life and is corrupt through (BE) deceitful desires, 23 and (BF) to be renewed in the spirit of your minds, 24 and to put on (BG) the new self, (BH) created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.

25 Therefore, having put away falsehood, let each one of you (BI) speak the truth with his neighbor, for (BJ) we are members one of another. 26 (BK) Be angry and do not sin do not let the sun go down on your anger, 27 and (BL) give no opportunity to the devil. 28 Let the thief no longer steal, but rather (BM) let him labor, (BN) doing honest work with his own hands, so (BO) that he may have something to share with anyone in need. 29 (BP) Let no corrupting talk come out of your mouths, but only such as is good for building up, as fits the occasion, that it may give (BQ) grace to those who hear. 30 And (BR) do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, (BS) by whom you were sealed for the day of (BT) redemption. 31 (BU) Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. 32 (BV) Be kind to one another, tenderhearted, (BW) forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave you.

## Food Preparation and Meal Planning

While there is no one-size-fits-all for meal planning, these tips can help guide you toward better daily nutrition:

Eat four to six small meals daily.

Stay hydrated — drink enough to keep your urine light yellow to clear — with water, broth, tomato juice, or a rehydration solution.

Drink slowly and avoid using a straw, which can cause you to ingest air, which may cause gas.

Prepare meals in advance, and keep your kitchen stocked with foods that you tolerate well (see list below).

Use simple cooking techniques — boil, grill, steam, poach.

Use a food journal to keep track of what you eat and any symptoms you may experience.

## 4.6: BM 13901 #23

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction that is one of the physical laws of our universe. This means that the momentum of a rifle's reaction will exactly equal the momentum of the bullet and powder gasses ejected from the barrel. In the shooting sports we call that reaction recoil or "kick." It can be measured or computed empirically and has been for this recoil table.

Do not forget that rifle weight is a crucial factor in the recoil equation, inversely proportional to recoil. Increase the gun weight by, say, 25% and the recoil goes down by 25%. In the real world, firearms chambered for less powerful cartridges are typically built lighter than firearms chambered for more powerful cartridges. Violate this principle by, for example, chambering a lightweight, short action rifle for a powerful Magnum cartridge like the .300 WSM and the result will be a dramatic increase in kick. Just because it can be done does not mean it makes sense, despite what you might read in advertising copy. Choose a rifle weight appropriate for the loads you intend to shoot.

However, perceived recoil, what the shooter feels, is a highly subjective matter. In addition to gun weight, it is influenced by many factors. One of the most important of these is the fit and shape of the rifle stock. A good recoil pad can help soften the blow to the shooter's shoulder. Gas-operated semi-automatic actions reduce apparent recoil by spreading it over a longer period of time. These sorts of things cannot be accounted for in a recoil table. Also, please understand that there are dozens of loads for any given bullet weight in any cartridge that will produce the same velocity, but a different amount of recoil. So the figures in any recoil table should be taken as approximate. Never-the-less, the table below should give a reasonably accurate comparison of the recoil of most popular rifle cartridges.

It is worth remembering that the majority of authorities agree that recoil of over twenty foot pounds will cause most shooters to develop a serous flinch, which is ruinous to bullet placement (the prime component of killing power). Fifteen foot pounds is probably about the maximum recoil energy most shooters feel reasonably comfortable with, particularly at the shooting range, where most serious marksmanship practice occurs.

While recoil energy determines how hard the blow to the shoulder feels, recoil velocity determines how abrupt the blow to the shoulder feels. My subjective impression is that, with a well designed stock, recoil velocity above about 10 fps begins to feel like a sharp rap on the shoulder rather than an abrupt push.

In 1909, the British Textbook of Small Arms stated that 15 ft. lbs. of free recoil energy was the maximum allowable for a military service rifle. (The standard British .303 Lee-Enfield infantry rifle was below that figure, as are most service rifles to this day. This should tell you something.) The 1929 edition of the same textbook stated, in addition, that recoil velocity should not exceed 15 fps above that velocity a gun-headache was very likely to occur. These figures remain practical maximums for the modern hunter.

Above this level recoil becomes increasingly intrusive. In addition, the effects of recoil are cumulative. The longer you shoot, and the harder the rifle kicks, the more likely you are to flinch. These are good things to remember when comparing rifle cartridges.

In the table below rifle weight is given in pounds, free recoil energy is given in foot pounds, and free recoil velocity is given in feet-per-second. All recoil values have been rounded off to one decimal place.

The recoil energy and recoil velocity figures are taken from various sources including the recoil nomograph in the Handloader's Digest 8th Edition , various online recoil calculators, the Remington Shoot! program or calculated from the formula given in the Lyman Reloading Handbook, 43rd Edition.

Note: For an expanded version of this table showing more calibers and many more loads, including British, European, wildcat, obsolescent American and proprietary calibers, see the Expanded Rifle Recoil Table.

## Bulletin (SB20-167)

The CISA Vulnerability Bulletin provides a summary of new vulnerabilities that have been recorded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD) in the past week. NVD is sponsored by CISA. In some cases, the vulnerabilities in the bulletin may not yet have assigned CVSS scores. Please visit NVD for updated vulnerability entries, which include CVSS scores once they are available.

Vulnerabilities are based on the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) vulnerability naming standard and are organized according to severity, determined by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) standard. The division of high, medium, and low severities correspond to the following scores:

: vulnerabilities with a CVSS base score of 7.0–10.0 : vulnerabilities with a CVSS base score of 4.0–6.9 : vulnerabilities with a CVSS base score of 0.0–3.9

Entries may include additional information provided by organizations and efforts sponsored by CISA. This information may include identifying information, values, definitions, and related links. Patch information is provided when available. Please note that some of the information in the bulletin is compiled from external, open-source reports and is not a direct result of CISA analysis.

The CISA Weekly Vulnerability Summary Bulletin is created using information from the NIST NVD. In some cases, the vulnerabilities in the Bulletin may not yet have assigned CVSS scores. Please visit NVD for updated vulnerability entries, which include CVSS scores once they are available.

## Main Digest

The handy mmol/L to mg/dl conversion table below converts the American blood sugar measurement system of milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) blood glucose values converted to the international standard of millimole per liter (mmol/L).

Our conversion charts below lists a broad range of easy to read mmol/L to mg/dl, as well as vice versa mg/dl to mmol/L, measurement comparisons that range in numbers from 0.1 mmol/L (1.80 mg/dL), and scale up to 900.0 mg/dL (50.000 mmol/L).

### What is Blood Sugar Level?

The blood sugar level (blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level) is defined as the measurement of the amount of glucose present in the blood. Glucose is an essential source of energy, our bodies make it, but glucose mostly comes from the food we eat.

Blood Glucose Measurement Methods:

The international standard way of measuring blood glucose levels is in terms of a molar concentration, measured in mmol/L (millimoles per litre or millimolar, abbreviated mM).

In the U.S., Germany and some other countries blood sugar level concentration is measured in mg/dL (milligrams per decilitre).

Contour TS blood glucose meter reading 8.4 mmol/L sits next to a white open container of sugar with a spoon in it, the container lid rests near a finger-prick device or lancet.

### Mmol/L to mg/dl Blood Glucose Conversion Table*

• 0.1 mmol/L = 1.80 mg/dL
• 0.2 mmol/L = 3.60 mg/dL
• 0.3 mmol/L = 5.41 mg/dL
• 0.4 mmol/L = 7.21 mg/dL
• 0.5 mmol/L = 9.01 mg/dL
• 0.6 mmol/L = 10.81 mg/dL
• 0.7 mmol/L = 12.61 mg/dL
• 0.8 mmol/L = 14.41 mg/dL
• 0.9 mmol/L = 16.22 mg/dL
• 1.0 mmol/L = 18.02 mg/dL
• 1.1 mmol/L = 19.82 mg/dL
• 1.2 mmol/L = 21.62 mg/dL
• 1.3 mmol/L = 23.42 mg/dL
• 1.4 mmol/L = 25.23 mg/dL
• 1.5 mmol/L = 27.03 mg/dL
• 1.6 mmol/L = 28.83 mg/dL
• 1.7 mmol/L = 30.63 mg/dL
• 1.8 mmol/L = 32.43 mg/dL
• 1.9 mmol/L = 34.23 mg/dL
• 2.0 mmol/L = 36.04 mg/dL
• 2.1 mmol/L = 37.84 mg/dL
• 2.2 mmol/L = 39.64 mg/dL
• 2.3 mmol/L = 41.44 mg/dL
• 2.4 mmol/L = 43.24 mg/dL
• 2.5 mmol/L = 45.05 mg/dL
• 2.6 mmol/L = 46.85 mg/dL
• 2.7 mmol/L = 48.65 mg/dL
• 2.8 mmol/L = 50.45 mg/dL
• 2.9 mmol/L = 52.25 mg/dL
• 3.0 mmol/L = 54.05 mg/dL
• 3.1 mmol/L = 55.86 mg/dL
• 3.2 mmol/L = 57.66 mg/dL
• 3.3 mmol/L = 59.46 mg/dL
• 3.4 mmol/L = 61.26 mg/dL
• 3.5 mmol/L = 63.06 mg/dL
• 3.6 mmol/L = 64.86 mg/dL
• 3.7 mmol/L = 66.67 mg/dL
• 3.8 mmol/L = 68.47 mg/dL
• 3.9 mmol/L = 70.27 mg/dL
• 4.0 mmol/L = 72.07 mg/dL
• 4.1 mmol/L = 73.87 mg/dL
• 4.2 mmol/L = 75.68 mg/dL
• 4.3 mmol/L = 77.48 mg/dL
• 4.4 mmol/L = 79.28 mg/dL
• 4.5 mmol/L = 81.08 mg/dL
• 4.6 mmol/L = 82.88 mg/dL
• 4.7 mmol/L = 84.68 mg/dL
• 4.8 mmol/L = 86.49 mg/dL
• 4.9 mmol/L = 88.29 mg/dL
• 5.0 mmol/L = 90.09 mg/dL
• 5.2 mmol/L = 93.69 mg/dL
• 5.4 mmol/L = 97.30 mg/dL
• 5.5 mmol/L = 99.10 mg/dL
• 5.6 mmol/L = 100.90 mg/dL
• 5.8 mmol/L = 104.50 mg/dL
• 6.0 mmol/L = 108.11 mg/dL
• 6.2 mmol/L = 111.71 mg/dL
• 6.4 mmol/L = 115.32 mg/dL
• 6.5 mmol/L = 117.12 mg/dL
• 6.6 mmol/L = 118.92 mg/dL
• 6.8 mmol/L = 122.52 mg/dL
• 7.0 mmol/L = 126.13 mg/dL
• 7.2 mmol/L = 129.73 mg/dL
• 7.4 mmol/L = 133.33 mg/dL
• 7.5 mmol/L = 135.14 mg/dL
• 7.6 mmol/L = 136.94 mg/dL
• 7.8 mmol/L = 140.54 mg/dL
• 8.0 mmol/L = 144.14 mg/dL
• 8.2 mmol/L = 147.75 mg/dL
• 8.4 mmol/L = 151.35 mg/dL
• 8.5 mmol/L = 153.15 mg/dL
• 8.6 mmol/L = 154.95 mg/dL
• 8.8 mmol/L = 158.56 mg/dL
• 9.0 mmol/L = 162.16 mg/dL
• 9.2 mmol/L = 165.77 mg/dL
• 9.4 mmol/L = 169.37 mg/dL
• 9.5 mmol/L = 171.17 mg/dL
• 9.6 mmol/L = 172.97 mg/dL
• 9.8 mmol/L = 176.58 mg/dL
• 10.0 mmol/L = 180.18 mg/dL
• 10.5 mmol/L = 189.19 mg/dL
• 11 mmol/L = 198.20 mg/dL
• 11.5 mmol/L = 207.21 mg/dL
• 12.0 mmol/L = 216.22 mg/dL
• 12.5 mmol/L = 225.23 mg/dL
• 13.0 mmol/L = 234.23 mg/dL
• 13.5 mmol/L = 243.24 mg/dL
• 14.0 mmol/L = 252.25 mg/dL
• 14.5 mmol/L = 261.26 mg/dL
• 15.0 mmol/L = 270.27 mg/dL
• 15.5 mmol/L = 279.28 mg/dL
• 16.0 mmol/L = 288.29 mg/dL
• 16.5 mmol/L = 297.30 mg/dL
• 17.0 mmol/L = 306.31 mg/dL
• 17.5 mmol/L = 315.32 mg/dL
• 18.0 mmol/L = 324.32 mg/dL
• 18.5 mmol/L = 333.33 mg/dL
• 19.0 mmol/L = 342.34 mg/dL
• 19.5 mmol/L = 351.35 mg/dL
• 20.0 mmol/L = 360.36 mg/dL
• 20.5 mmol/L = 369.37 mg/dL
• 21.0 mmol/L = 378.38 mg/dL
• 22.0 mmol/L = 396.40 mg/dL
• 22.5 mmol/L = 405.41 mg/dL
• 23.0 mmol/L = 414.41 mg/dL
• 23.5 mmol/L = 423.42 mg/dL
• 24.0 mmol/L = 432.43 mg/dL
• 24.5 mmol/L = 441.44 mg/dL
• 25.0 mmol/L = 450.45 mg/dL
• 26.0 mmol/L = 468.47 mg/dL
• 27.0 mmol/L = 486.49 mg/dL
• 28.0 mmol/L = 504.50 mg/dL
• 29.0 mmol/L = 522.52 mg/dL
• 30.0 mmol/L = 540.54 mg/dL
• 31.0 mmol/L = 558.56 mg/dL
• 32.0 mmol/L = 576.58 mg/dL
• 33.0 mmol/L = 594.59 mg/dL
• 34.0 mmol/L = 612.61 mg/dL
• 35.0 mmol/L = 630.63 mg/dL
• 36.0 mmol/L = 648.65 mg/dL
• 37.0 mmol/L = 666.67 mg/dL
• 38.0 mmol/L = 684.68 mg/dL
• 39.0 mmol/L = 702.70 mg/dL
• 40.0 mmol/L = 720.72 mg/dL
• 41.0 mmol/L = 738.74 mg/dL
• 42.0 mmol/L = 756.76 mg/dL
• 43.0 mmol/L = 774.77 mg/dL
• 44.0 mmol/L = 792.79 mg/dL
• 45.0 mmol/L = 810.81 mg/dL
• 46.0 mmol/L = 828.83 mg/dL
• 47.0 mmol/L = 846.85 mg/dL
• 48.0 mmol/L = 864.86 mg/dL
• 49.0 mmol/L = 882.88 mg/dL
• 50.0 mmol/L = 900.90 mg/dL
• 55.0 mmol/L = 990.99 mg/dL
• 60.0 mmol/L = 1081.08 mg/dL
• 65.0 mmol/L = 1171.17 mg/dL
• 70.0 mmol/L = 1261.26 mg/dL
• 75.0 mmol/L = 1351.35 mg/dL
• 80.0 mmol/L = 1441.44 mg/dL
• 85.0 mmol/L = 1531.53 mg/dL
• 90.0 mmol/L = 1621.62 mg/dL
• 95.0 mmol/L = 1711.71 mg/dL
• 100.0 mmol/L = 1801.80 mg/dL
• 105.0 mmol/L = 1891.89 mg/dL
• 110.0 mmol/L = 1981.98 mg/dL
• 115.0 mmol/L = 2072.07 mg/dL
• 120.0 mmol/L = 2162.16 mg/dL
• 125.0 mmol/L = 2252.25 mg/dL
• 130.0 mmol/L = 2342.34 mg/dL
• 135.0 mmol/L = 2432.43 mg/dL
• 140.0 mmol/L = 2522.52 mg/dL
• 145.0 mmol/L = 2612.61 mg/dL
• 150.0 mmol/L = 2702.70 mg/dL
• 155.0 mmol/L = 2792.79 mg/dL
• 160.0 mmol/L = 2882.88 mg/dL
• 165.0 mmol/L = 2972.97 mg/dL
• 170.0 mmol/L = 3063.06 mg/dL
• 175.0 mmol/L = 3153.15 mg/dL
• 180.0 mmol/L = 3243.24 mg/dL
• 185.0 mmol/L = 3333.33 mg/dL
• 190.0 mmol/L = 3423.42 mg/dL
• 195.0 mmol/L = 3513.51 mg/dL
• 200.0 mmol/L = 3603.60 mg/dL
• 205.0 mmol/L = 3693.69 mg/dL
• 210.0 mmol/L = 3783.78 mg/dL
• 215.0 mmol/L = 3873.87 mg/dL
• 220.0 mmol/L = 3963.96 mg/dL
• 225.0 mmol/L = 4054.05 mg/dL
• 230.0 mmol/L = 4144.14 mg/dL
• 235.0 mmol/L = 4234.23 mg/dL
• 240.0 mmol/L = 4324.32 mg/dL
• 245.0 mmol/L = 4414.41 mg/dL
• 250.0 mmol/L = 4504.50 mg/dL
• 260.0 mmol/L = 4684.68 mg/dL
• 270.0 mmol/L = 4864.86 mg/dL
• 280.0 mmol/L = 5045.05 mg/dL
• 290.0 mmol/L = 5225.23 mg/dL
• 300.0 mmol/L = 5405.41 mg/dL
• 310.0 mmol/L = 5585.59 mg/dL
• 320.0 mmol/L = 5765.77 mg/dL
• 330.0 mmol/L = 5945.95 mg/dL
• 340.0 mmol/L = 6126.13 mg/dL
• 350.0 mmol/L = 6306.31 mg/dL
• 360.0 mmol/L = 6486.49 mg/dL
• 370.0 mmol/L = 6666.67 mg/dL
• 380.0 mmol/L = 6846.85 mg/dL
• 390.0 mmol/L = 7027.03 mg/dL
• 400.0 mmol/L = 7207.21 mg/dL
• 410.0 mmol/L = 7387.39 mg/dL
• 420.0 mmol/L = 7567.57 mg/dL
• 430.0 mmol/L = 7747.75 mg/dL
• 440.0 mmol/L = 7927.93 mg/dL
• 450.0 mmol/L = 8108.11 mg/dL
• 460.0 mmol/L = 8288.29 mg/dL
• 470.0 mmol/L = 8468.47 mg/dL
• 480.0 mmol/L = 8648.65 mg/dL
• 490.0 mmol/L = 8828.83 mg/dL
• 500.0 mmol/L = 9009.01 mg/dL

### Mg/dl /L to mmol/L Blood Glucose Conversion Table*

• 0.1 mg/dL = 0.006 mmol/L
• 0.2 mg/dL = 0.011 mmol/L
• 0.3 mg/dL = 0.017 mmol/L
• 0.4 mg/dL = 0.022 mmol/L
• 0.5 mg/dL = 0.028 mmol/L
• 0.6 mg/dL = 0.033 mmol/L
• 0.7 mg/dL = 0.039 mmol/L
• 0.8 mg/dL = 0.044 mmol/L
• 0.9 mg/dL = 0.050 mmol/L
• 1.0 mg/dL = 0.056 mmol/L
• 1.1 mg/dL = 0.061 mmol/L
• 1.2 mg/dL = 0.067 mmol/L
• 1.3 mg/dL = 0.072 mmol/L
• 1.4 mg/dL = 0.078 mmol/L
• 1.5 mg/dL = 0.083 mmol/L
• 1.6 mg/dL = 0.089 mmol/L
• 1.7 mg/dL = 0.094 mmol/L
• 1.8 mg/dL = 0.100 mmol/L
• 1.9 mg/dL = 0.105 mmol/L
• 2.0 mg/dL = 0.111 mmol/L
• 2.1 mg/dL = 0.117 mmol/L
• 2.2 mg/dL = 0.122 mmol/L
• 2.3 mg/dL = 0.128 mmol/L
• 2.4 mg/dL = 0.133 mmol/L
• 2.5 mg/dL = 0.139 mmol/L
• 2.6 mg/dL = 0.144 mmol/L
• 2.7 mg/dL = 0.150 mmol/L
• 2.8 mg/dL = 0.155 mmol/L
• 2.9 mg/dL = 0.161 mmol/L
• 3.0 mg/dL = 0.167 mmol/L
• 3.1 mg/dL = 0.172 mmol/L
• 3.2 mg/dL = 0.178 mmol/L
• 3.3 mg/dL = 0.183 mmol/L
• 3.4 mg/dL = 0.189 mmol/L
• 3.5 mg/dL = 0.194 mmol/L
• 3.6 mg/dL = 0.200 mmol/L
• 3.7 mg/dL = 0.205 mmol/L
• 3.8 mg/dL = 0.211 mmol/L
• 3.9 mg/dL = 0.216 mmol/L
• 4.0 mg/dL = 0.222 mmol/L
• 4.1 mg/dL = 0.228 mmol/L
• 4.2 mg/dL = 0.233 mmol/L
• 4.3 mg/dL = 0.239 mmol/L
• 4.4 mg/dL = 0.244 mmol/L
• 4.5 mg/dL = 0.250 mmol/L
• 4.6 mg/dL = 0.255 mmol/L
• 4.7 mg/dL = 0.261 mmol/L
• 4.8 mg/dL = 0.266 mmol/L
• 4.9 mg/dL = 0.272 mmol/L
• 5.0 mg/dL = 0.278 mmol/L
• 5.2 mg/dL = 0.289 mmol/L
• 5.4 mg/dL = 0.300 mmol/L
• 5.5 mg/dL = 0.305 mmol/L
• 5.6 mg/dL = 0.311 mmol/L
• 5.8 mg/dL = 0.322 mmol/L
• 6.0 mg/dL = 0.333 mmol/L
• 6.2 mg/dL = 0.344 mmol/L
• 6.4 mg/dL = 0.355 mmol/L
• 6.5 mg/dL = 0.361 mmol/L
• 6.6 mg/dL = 0.366 mmol/L
• 6.8 mg/dL = 0.377 mmol/L
• 7.0 mg/dL = 0.389 mmol/L
• 7.2 mg/dL = 0.400 mmol/L
• 7.4 mg/dL = 0.411 mmol/L
• 7.5 mg/dL = 0.416 mmol/L
• 7.6 mg/dL = 0.422 mmol/L
• 7.8 mg/dL = 0.433 mmol/L
• 8.0 mg/dL = 0.444 mmol/L
• 8.2 mg/dL = 0.455 mmol/L
• 8.4 mg/dL = 0.466 mmol/L
• 8.5 mg/dL = 0.472 mmol/L
• 8.6 mg/dL = 0.477 mmol/L
• 8.8 mg/dL = 0.488 mmol/L
• 9.0 mg/dL = 0.500 mmol/L
• 9.2 mg/dL = 0.511 mmol/L
• 9.4 mg/dL = 0.522 mmol/L
• 9.5 mg/dL = 0.527 mmol/L
• 9.6 mg/dL = 0.533 mmol/L
• 9.8 mg/dL = 0.544 mmol/L
• 10.0 mg/dL = 0.555 mmol/L
• 10.5 mg/dL = 0.583 mmol/L
• 11.0 mg/dL = 0.611 mmol/L
• 11.5 mg/dL = 0.638 mmol/L
• 12.0 mg/dL = 0.666 mmol/L
• 12.5 mg/dL = 0.694 mmol/L
• 13.0 mg/dL = 0.722 mmol/L
• 13.5 mg/dL = 0.749 mmol/L
• 14.0 mg/dL = 0.777 mmol/L
• 14.5 mg/dL = 0.805 mmol/L
• 15.0 mg/dL = 0.833 mmol/L
• 15.5 mg/dL = 0.860 mmol/L
• 16.0 mg/dL = 0.888 mmol/L
• 16.5 mg/dL = 0.916 mmol/L
• 17.0 mg/dL = 0.944 mmol/L
• 17.5 mg/dL = 0.971 mmol/L
• 18.0 mg/dL = 0.999 mmol/L
• 18.5 mg/dL = 1.027 mmol/L
• 19.0 mg/dL = 1.055 mmol/L
• 19.5 mg/dL = 1.082 mmol/L
• 20.0 mg/dL = 1.110 mmol/L
• 20.5 mg/dL = 1.138 mmol/L
• 21.0 mg/dL = 1.166 mmol/L
• 21.5 mg/dL = 1.193 mmol/L
• 22.0 mg/dL = 1.221 mmol/L
• 22.5 mg/dL = 1.249 mmol/L
• 23.0 mg/dL = 1.277 mmol/L
• 23.5 mg/dL = 1.304 mmol/L
• 24.0 mg/dL = 1.332 mmol/L
• 24.5 mg/dL = 1.360 mmol/L
• 25.0 mg/dL = 1.388 mmol/L
• 26.0 mg/dL = 1.443 mmol/L
• 27.0 mg/dL = 1.499 mmol/L
• 28.0 mg/dL = 1.554 mmol/L
• 29.0 mg/dL = 1.610 mmol/L
• 30.0 mg/dL = 1.665 mmol/L
• 31.0 mg/dL = 1.721 mmol/L
• 32.0 mg/dL = 1.776 mmol/L
• 33.0 mg/dL = 1.832 mmol/L
• 34.0 mg/dL = 1.887 mmol/L
• 35.0 mg/dL = 1.943 mmol/L
• 36.0 mg/dL = 1.998 mmol/L
• 37.0 mg/dL = 2.054 mmol/L
• 38.0 mg/dL = 2.109 mmol/L
• 39.0 mg/dL = 2.165 mmol/L
• 40.0 mg/dL = 2.220 mmol/L
• 40.0 mg/dL = 2.220 mmol/L
• 41.0 mg/dL = 2.276 mmol/L
• 42.0 mg/dL = 2.331 mmol/L
• 43.0 mg/dL = 2.387 mmol/L
• 44.0 mg/dL = 2.442 mmol/L
• 45.0 mg/dL = 2.498 mmol/L
• 46.0 mg/dL = 2.553 mmol/L
• 47.0 mg/dL = 2.609 mmol/L
• 48.0 mg/dL = 2.664 mmol/L
• 49.0 mg/dL = 2.720 mmol/L
• 50.0 mg/dL = 2.775 mmol/L
• 55.0 mg/dL = 3.053 mmol/L
• 60.0 mg/dL = 3.330 mmol/L
• 65.0 mg/dL = 3.608 mmol/L
• 70.0 mg/dL = 3.885 mmol/L
• 75.0 mg/dL = 4.163 mmol/L
• 80.0 mg/dL = 4.440 mmol/L
• 85.0 mg/dL = 4.718 mmol/L
• 90.0 mg/dL = 4.995 mmol/L
• 95.0 mg/dL = 5.273 mmol/L
• 100.0 mg/dL = 5.550 mmol/L
• 105.0 mg/dL = 5.828 mmol/L
• 110.0 mg/dL = 6.105 mmol/L
• 115.0 mg/dL = 6.383 mmol/L
• 120.0 mg/dL = 6.660 mmol/L
• 125.0 mg/dL = 6.938 mmol/L
• 130.0 mg/dL = 7.215 mmol/L
• 135.0 mg/dL = 7.493 mmol/L
• 140.0 mg/dL = 7.770 mmol/L
• 145.0 mg/dL = 8.048 mmol/L
• 150.0 mg/dL = 8.325 mmol/L
• 155.0 mg/dL = 8.603 mmol/L
• 160.0 mg/dL = 8.880 mmol/L
• 165.0 mg/dL = 9.158 mmol/L
• 170.0 mg/dL = 9.435 mmol/L
• 175.0 mg/dL = 9.713 mmol/L
• 180.0 mg/dL = 9.990 mmol/L
• 185.0 mg/dL = 10.268 mmol/L
• 190.0 mg/dL = 10.545 mmol/L
• 195.0 mg/dL = 10.823 mmol/L
• 200.0 mg/dL = 11.100 mmol/L
• 205.0 mg/dL = 11.378 mmol/L
• 210.0 mg/dL = 11.655 mmol/L
• 215.0 mg/dL = 11.933 mmol/L
• 220.0 mg/dL = 12.210 mmol/L
• 225.0 mg/dL = 12.488 mmol/L
• 230.0 mg/dL = 12.765 mmol/L
• 235.0 mg/dL = 13.043 mmol/L
• 240.0 mg/dL = 13.320 mmol/L
• 245.0 mg/dL = 13.598 mmol/L
• 250.0 mg/dL = 13.875 mmol/L
• 260.0 mg/dL = 14.430 mmol/L
• 270.0 mg/dL = 14.985 mmol/L
• 280.0 mg/dL = 15.540 mmol/L
• 290.0 mg/dL = 16.095 mmol/L
• 300.0 mg/dL = 16.650 mmol/L
• 310.0 mg/dL = 17.205 mmol/L
• 320.0 mg/dL = 17.760 mmol/L
• 330.0 mg/dL = 18.315 mmol/L
• 340.0 mg/dL = 18.870 mmol/L
• 350.0 mg/dL = 19.425 mmol/L
• 360.0 mg/dL = 19.980 mmol/L
• 370.0 mg/dL = 20.535 mmol/L
• 380.0 mg/dL = 21.090 mmol/L
• 390.0 mg/dL = 21.645 mmol/L
• 400.0 mg/dL = 22.200 mmol/L
• 410.0 mg/dL = 22.755 mmol/L
• 420.0 mg/dL = 23.310 mmol/L
• 430.0 mg/dL = 23.865 mmol/L
• 440.0 mg/dL = 24.420 mmol/L
• 450.0 mg/dL = 24.975 mmol/L
• 460.0 mg/dL = 25.530 mmol/L
• 470.0 mg/dL = 26.085 mmol/L
• 480.0 mg/dL = 26.640 mmol/L
• 490.0 mg/dL = 27.195 mmol/L
• 500.0 mg/dL = 27.750 mmol/L
• 540.0 mg/dL = 30.000 mmol/L
• 600.0 mg/dL = 33.300 mmol/L
• 700.0 mg/dL = 38.800 mmol/L
• 720.0 mg/dL = 40.000 mmol/L
• 800.0 mg/dL = 44.400 mmol/L
• 900.0 mg/dL = 50.000 mmol/L

### Difference Between Normal and Diabetic Blood Sugar Levels

If you are a diabetic, or have prediabetes, it is very important that you control your blood glucose levels as high blood sugar levels that are too high for long periods of time increase the risk of diabetes complications such as kidney disease, nerve damage, retinal disease, heart disease, stroke developing.

• Between 4.0 to 5.4 mmol/L (72 - 99 mg/dL) when fasting.
• Up to 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) 2 hours after eating.
• Before meals: 4 to 7 mmol/L for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
• After meals: under 9 mmol/L for people with type 1 diabetes
• Under 8.5mmol/L for people with type 2 diabetes.

See our Blood Sugar Level Chart which shows low, normal, and high blood glucose measurements and what they mean.

### Printable Blood Sugar mmol/L to mg/dl Conversion Chart

Printable blood sugar conversion chart and diabetes information.

*NOTE: All figures are approximate only.

Disabled World is an independent disability community established in 2004 to provide disability news and information to people with disabilities, seniors, and their family and/or carers. See our homepage for informative reviews, exclusive stories and how-tos. You can connect with us on social media such as Twitter and Facebook or learn more about Disabled World on our about us page.

-To change the key press the right button and pick between different options. -You can also change Arpeggio and Drum Settings. Furthermore, you can enable/disable randomization for BPM, Arpeggio, Drums and Key if you want to fix currently selected option.

There is nothing complicated except Roman Numerals below the chord namings. Actually, they are called Scale Degrees. Scale Degree refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic, the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin. Degrees are useful for indicating the size of intervals and chords, and whether they are major or minor. The other confusing thing is arrangement options. AAAA, ABCD, ABBB, AB are not specific conventions. Those are just namings made up by me. Try them out and listen to how they sound.

If you're willing to understand more music theory - check out our Theory For Music website.

Disclaimer: I strive to make this tool as suitable as possible, so be sure to leave the feedback and share the ideas via email.

## Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 317.385 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

### Dilution Calculator

1: Mori A, Sekito A, Sakamoto K, Ishii K, Nakahara T. Stimulation of β(1)- and β(2)-adrenoceptors dilates retinal blood vessels in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2017 May390(5):527-533. doi: 10.1007/s00210-017-1349-4. Epub 2017 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 28160015.

2: Birrell MA, Bonvini SJ, Wortley MA, Buckley J, Yew-Booth L, Maher SA, Dale N, Dubuis ED, Belvisi MG. The role of adenylyl cyclase isoform 6 in β-adrenoceptor signalling in murine airways. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jan172(1):131-41. doi: 10.1111/bph.12905. Epub 2014 Nov 24. PubMed PMID: 25205328 PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4280973.

3: Barresi M, Grasso C, Licata F, Li Volsi G. Noradrenergic modulation of neuronal responses to n-methyl-d-aspartate in the vestibular nuclei: an electrophysiological and immunohistochemical study. Neuroscience. 2014 Apr 18265:172-83. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.01.054. Epub 2014 Feb 7. PubMed PMID: 24508745.

4: Murai K, Seino Y, Kimata N, Inami T, Murakami D, Abe J, Yodogawa K, Maruyama M, Takano M, Ohba T, Ibuki C, Mizuno K. Efficacy and limitations of oral inotropic agents for the treatment of chronic heart failure. Int Heart J. 201354(2):75-81. PubMed PMID: 23676366.

5: Salie R, Moolman JA, Lochner A. The mechanism of beta-adrenergic preconditioning: roles for adenosine and ROS during triggering and mediation. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012 Sep107(5):281. doi: 10.1007/s00395-012-0281-5. Epub 2012 Jul 15. PubMed PMID: 22797560.

6: Downs CA, Kriener LH, Yu L, Eaton DC, Jain L, Helms MN. β-Adrenergic agonists differentially regulate highly selective and nonselective epithelial sodium channels to promote alveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012 Jun 1302(11):L1167-78. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00038.2012. Epub 2012 Apr 13. PubMed PMID: 22505670 PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3379040.

7: Salie R, Moolman JA, Lochner A. The role of β-adrenergic receptors in the cardioprotective effects of beta-preconditioning (βPC). Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2011 Feb25(1):31-46. doi: 10.1007/s10557-010-6275-3. PubMed PMID: 21225332.

8: Baker JG. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor agonists at human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jul160(5):1048-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00754.x. PubMed PMID: 20590599 PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2936015.

9: Luchowska E, Kloc R, Olajossy B, Wnuk S, Wielosz M, Owe-Larsson B, Urbanska EM. beta-adrenergic enhancement of brain kynurenic acid production mediated via cAMP-related protein kinase A signaling. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Apr 3033(3):519-29. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.02.002. Epub 2009 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 19439240.

10: Marcantoni A, Carabelli V, Vandael DH, Comunanza V, Carbone E. PDE type-4 inhibition increases L-type Ca(2+) currents, action potential firing, and quantal size of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells. Pflugers Arch. 2009 Mar457(5):1093-110. doi: 10.1007/s00424-008-0584-4. Epub 2008 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 18779976.

11: Shang G, Liu D, Allen SE, Yang Q, Zhang X. Asymmetric hydrogenation of alpha-primary and secondary amino ketones: efficient asymmetric syntheses of (-)-arbutamine and (-)-denopamine. Chemistry. 200713(27):7780-4. PubMed PMID: 17591728.

12: Ohgo T, Okamura H, Noda T, Satomi K, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S, Ohe T, Shimizu W. Acute and chronic management in patients with Brugada syndrome associated with electrical storm of ventricular fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Jun4(6):695-700. Epub 2007 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 17556186.

13: Hayashi M, Ikomi F, Ohhashi T. Noradrenaline-induced smooth muscle relaxation in the specific region of canine facial vein: implications for facial and cranial circulation. J Physiol Sci. 2006 Oct56(5):369-78. Epub 2006 Oct 12. Erratum in: J Physiol Sci. 2007 Apr57(2):137. PubMed PMID: 17026784.

14: Gu X, Wang Z, Xu J, Maeda S, Sugita M, Sagawa M, Toga H, Sakuma T. Denopamine stimulates alveolar fluid clearance via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in rat lungs. Respirology. 2006 Sep11(5):566-71. PubMed PMID: 16916328.

15: Gu X, Li SQ, Sakuma T. [Effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on alveolar fluid clearance in rat lungs]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2005 Jun28(6):390-3. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 16008976.

16: Nakajima D, Negoro N, Nakaboh A, Nakakoji T, Hoshiga M, Nariyama J, Ishihara T, Hanafusa T. Effectiveness of low dose denopamine, a beta1-adrenoceptor agonist, in a patient with vasospastic angina refractory to intensive medical treatment. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Apr 4108(2):281-3. PubMed PMID: 15913812.

17: Shimizu W, Aiba T, Antzelevitch C. Specific therapy based on the genotype and cellular mechanism in inherited cardiac arrhythmias. Long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Curr Pharm Des. 200511(12):1561-72. Review. PubMed PMID: 15892662 PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1475802.

18: Kaji H, Kume T. Regioselective glucuronidation of denopamine: marked species differences and identification of human udp-glucuronosyltransferase isoform. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Mar33(3):403-12. Epub 2004 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 15608137.

19: Ishide T. Denopamine, a selective beta1-receptor agonist and a new coronary vasodilator. Curr Med Res Opin. 200218(7):407-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 12487507.

20: Trost BM, Yeh VS, Ito H, Bremeyer N. Effect of ligand structure on the zinc-catalyzed Henry reaction. Asymmetric syntheses of (-)-denopamine and (-)-arbutamine. Org Lett. 2002 Aug 84(16):2621-3. PubMed PMID: 12153193.

## NEW N SCALE TURNTABLE IS DCC-READY

Bachmann introduces a DCC-ready motorized turntable in N scale. With 12 indexed track positions, slow-speed gear drive, and direction control switch, it will turn in a great performance on your N scale railroad!

* 12 nickel silver track positions

* turntable indexed to each track section for accurate alignment

* DCC-ready with 8-pin dummy plug

* painted maintenance building

* prototypical operator&rsquos cabin

* designed for use with Bachmann&rsquos E-Z Track®

* easily adaptable to other popular track systems

(Locomotive is not included.)

## Converting 12-Hour to 24-Hour Format

A 24-hour clock, sometimes referred to as military time, states the time according to the number of hours that have passed since midnight. Starting at midnight, hours are numbered from 0 to 24, removing the need for designations like am and pm. For example, at 23:00, 23 hours have passed since the beginning of the current day.

To convert am or pm time to the 24-hour format, use these rules:

From midnight to 12:59 am, subtract 12 hours.
12:49 am = 0:49 (12:49 – 12)

From 1 am to noon, do nothing.
11:49 am = 11:49

From 12:01 pm to 12:59 pm, do nothing.
12:49 pm = 12:49

From 1:00 pm to midnight, add 12 hours.
1:49 pm = 13:49 (1:49 + 12)

Here's how to convert time on a 24-hour clock to the 12-hour system:

From 0:00 (midnight) to 0:59, add 12 hours and use am.
0:49 = 12:49 am (0:49 + 12)

From 1:00 to 11:59, just add am after the time.
11:49 = 11:49 am

From 12:00 to 12:59, just add pm after the time.
12:49 = 12:49 pm

From 13:00 to 0:00, subtract 12 hours and use pm.
13:49 = 1:49 pm (13:49 - 12)